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P > PEL VARAZDIN > Orao   


"Orao (English = Eagle) was an 8-bit computer developed by PEL Varaždin in 1984. It was used as a standard primary school computer in Croatia from 1985 to 1991.

Orao (code named YU102) was designed by Miroslav Kocijan to supersede Galeb (code named YU101). The goal was to make a better computer, yet with less components, easier to produce and less expensive. Originally a Motorola 6809 microprocessor was planned but was abandoned for the MOS 6502 due to being significantly more expensive."
(source : Wikipedia)

Orao was the computer of choice back in the eighties for educational use in the Croatian elementary schools. When turned on it would start the monitor, and you had to type a command to start the BASIC. There is no text mode. Characters are drawn in graphic mode in an 8x8 grid, allowing the system to display 32 characters x 32 lines.

Zoran Majcenic reports (source =
In 1985 in Croatia (then Yugoslavia), for purposes of education, a microcomputer called Orao (Eagle) was made for elementary schools. I believe that 2 per school were produced (so they are rare). It is a computer with 16 or 32 kb of memory, 6502 processor, internal speaker, 256x256 monochrome display, built-in BASIC and MONITOR programs. It can be connected using antenna or VIDEO connector. The PSU is integrated in its casing so you just directly plug it in power outlet.

Also, according to Karlo Siljeg (source =
"Orao" was made by a company called PEL Varazdin, Velebit was the distributor. Velebit also distributed a number of Apple II Compatible computers called "Impuls". Impuls was a Apple II compatible made by Ivel. Ivel was a company which made oil equipment. It manufactured microcontrollers and branched out in making Apple II compatibles. The company was based in the town of Ivanjic Grad. The Ivel micro was also distributed under the Ivel name as Ivel Ultra. The Ivel micro was one of the "standard" machines by the education board and they which were distributed in Croatia (then Yugoslavia) by the education department as Impuls. The company Velebit which imported Apple's into Croatia also distributed Ivels and Orao machines

Sinisa Kolaric adds:
"Orao" came bundled with a small black-and-white monochrome monitor. Also, the mentioned "MONITOR" program was actually a rudimentary assembler for 6502. It was a basic but architecturally clean machine, relatively powerful for that age. Something like C64 but without frills. A perfect introduction to the IBM PC which came a little bit later, along with the Amiga and Atari ST.

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Sunday 2nd February 2020

re rgh (Austria)
Both “Orao“ and “Galeb“were concieved and produced in Varazdin, Croatia and it had no connection to any other part of our ex-country, so, it a Croatian legacy.

Friday 12th September 2014
Nenad Resnik (Croatia)

re rgh (Austria)
Both “Orao“ and “Galeb“were concieved and produced in Varazdin, Croatia and it had no connection to any other part of our ex-country, so, it a Croatian legacy.

Friday 12th September 2014
Nenad Resnik (Croatia)


NAME  Orao
TYPE  Home Computer
ORIGIN  Croatia
YEAR  1985
BUILT IN LANGUAGE  Basic (Pascal language supplied on tape)
KEYBOARD  Full stroke keyboard (61 keys), 4 function keys, 4 arrow keys
CPU  6502
RAM  16 KB and 32 KB models (expandable to 64 KB)
VRAM  Unknown
ROM  16 KB (monitor + BASIC)
TEXT MODES  32 x 32
GRAPHIC MODES  256 x 256
COLORS  Unknown
SOUND  Unknown
SIZE / WEIGHT  Unknown
I/O PORTS  Tape interface, TV output, Composite video output, User port, RS 232 connector
OS  DOS 0.1
POWER SUPPLY  Power supply built-in
PRICE  55,000 dinars planned but increased to 80,000 during production

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