The Computer is programmed with simple numbers for adding, running loops and so on, but it's not possible to program the cpu directly.
Chriz tells us :
I own a kosmos cp1 and it's still functioning. It has a very good manual which is kind of a machine language course for the cp1-inctructions. The cpu was a 8049 (8bit) with 2048 byte rom and 128 byte ram integrated (6 Mhz) and the memory+io chip a 8155 with 256 byte ram and 22 bit io. The 256 byte of 8155 ram give you 128 storage cells for the cp1-instructions (like 04.056 which means load absolute 56 into accumulator).
You could control electronics and fishertechnik with this little computer, even model trains. There was an io-interface (8 relays, 8 inputs), a cassette interface for loading and saving programs, an extension interface (another 8155 gives you +128 storage cells and 16 ios) and another io-interface with 8 leds and transistor drivers.